Factors of Production: Land, Labour, Capital, Entrepreneur

As a result of the unceasing wars and plunderings, Kyiv’s importance dwindled. In December 1240, it was sacked by the Mongol-Tatar army of Batu Khan, which decimated its population. In the second half of the 13th century, the city underwent a revival under the rule of the vassal princes of the Golden Horde. In 1362–3 Grand Duke Algirdas of Lithuania annexed the Kyiv land to his realm as an appanage principality; it was governed by Volodymyr, son of Algirdas, who built a castle above Podil, on a steep hill called Zamkova hora (Castle mountain), aka Tyselivka, Khorevytsia or Frolivska hora. In the early 15th century, Kyiv’s trade and crafts revived to the extent that the burghers of Podil were granted self-government by Grand Duke Vytautas the Great, and between 1494 and 1497 the entire city received the rights of Magdeburg law.

The basic model used by economists is the hypothetical production schedule to determine output when the number of workers changes. In this scenario, the company can calculate the total product, or total output, that the firm will produce. Traditionally, it is the role of the capitalist to first save and then assume risk by employing people in production processes before revenue is generated from the finished goods. Better https://personal-accounting.org/factors-of-production-land-labor-capital/ capital goods allow people to travel farther, communicate faster, eat better foods, and save enough time from labor to enjoy leisure. A country can accidentally inflate its way into poverty by focusing on the supply of money rather than on capital goods. Losing focus on savings, investment, and capital equipment in favor of increasing its money supply by printing more of its currency can lead to hyperinflation.

  • After the crisis, China experienced a multi-year growth cycle, and its manufacturers invested in robots to improve productivity at their facilities and meet growing market demands.
  • The Austrian method stresses that it makes a real difference whether producers build houses or lay down railroad tracks.
  • Utility, which is the value or satisfaction received from the consumption of goods and services, is part of the economic problem – the unlimited needs and wants of the members of an economy against the limited factors of production available to satisfy those needs and wants.
  • In a market economy these choices emerge from the interactions of countless individual buyers and sellers competing with one another for profit and economic well-being.

The use of Polish was forbidden, and the government established a network of elementary schools, many secondary chools for boys and girls, and several Russian libraries and professional cultural-educational societies; it also subsidized a new newspaper, Kievlianin (1864–1919). In an attempt to counteract official Russification, in 1873 members of the Hromada of Kyiv created the Southwestern Branch of the Imperial Russian Geographic Society, and in 1874 the Hromada turned the newspaper Kievskii telegraf into its semiofficial organ. Despite Russification and repression, a Ukrainian national movement arose in Kyiv. The secret Society of United Slavs (1823–5) and the Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood (1845–7) were based there, and the Ukrainian scholar Mykhailo Maksymovych was the first rector of Kyiv University.

The Four Factors of Production

Until the company hires enough workers to run all of the machinery, this stage results in increasing returns. As long as each new worker contributes to the total output than the worker before, total output rises faster and faster. Ownership of the factors of production depends on the type of economic system and society. Factors of production are essential to any economy, as they are the building blocks for all goods and services.

  • Together, the factors of production make up the total productivity potential of a given economy.
  • A large part of Ukraine’s industrial output is produced by Kyiv’s enterprises.
  • The collapse of Soviet command economy at the end of the 1980s depressed Kyiv’s industrial sector, but the revival of market relations stimulated the development of its commercial profile.
  • A paper company might need, among many other things, trees, water, a large factory full of heavy machinery, a warehouse, an office building, and delivery trucks.

The same member then uses these wages to purchase goods and services, further stimulating demand within the economy. As you can see, labor is very significant to an economy because it stimulates demand, which in turn stimulates output and, by extension, economic growth. Moreover, as consumption expenditure increases, businesses are more profitable and tend to invest more into the company through capital and labor investment. Where capital investments can lead to more efficiency and productivity, an increase in labor allows the company to meet their increasing consumption demand resulting from the increased consumption expenditure. In economic terminology, Land includes not only plots of the earth but all natural resources used in the production process. These resources can range from water and minerals to wind energy and geographical locations.


Increasingly, however, economists began to emphasize the role of the entrepreneur, who was not simply an organizing force but also an innovative, creative force capable of combining the other factors in visionary ways. Since these qualities seemed to distinguish entrepreneurship from other forms of labor or capital, many people have come to view entrepreneurship as a factor of production in its own right. The resource or factor markets, together with the markets for products, have a profound effect on all production and distribution decisions. The paper company above, for example, might find that at a certain price, its paper products sell rapidly and ensure it a comfortable rate of profit.

Factors of Production in Economics

He raised venture capital money to rent office space, hire more employees, and purchase additional server space for development. However, as business continued to grow, Meta built its own office space and data centers. Each of these requires significant real estate and capital investments.

Characteristics of Land as a Factor of Production

For example, Mr. X who takes the risk of manufacturing television sets will be called an entrepreneur. All the inputs are classified into two groups—primary inputs and secondary inputs. Primary inputs render services only whereas secondary inputs get merged in the commodity for which they are used. Mistakes made with capital goods are more difficult to correct and lead to more serious long-term consequences.

The eastern border of the present Shevchenkivskyi raion follows Khreshchatyk, and thus includes the buildings of the Kyiv City Hall, the central post office next to Independence Square, and the Ukrainian House Exhibition Center overlooking the European Square. On the slope towards the Dnipro River stands the monument to Saint Volodymyr. North of Independence Square is the Saint Alexander’s Roman Catholic Church, and west of Independence Square is the Kyiv Shevchenko Museum where Taras Shevchenko resided in 1846–7. Kyiv’s oldest architecture is found on the next arterial to the west, the Volodymyrska Street, the former center of the upper city during the reigns of princes Volodymyr the Great and Yaroslav the Wise.

These inputs have varying levels of importance to the production process depending on the industry and type of business using them. They are regarded in different ways by different schools of economic thought. Entrepreneurship is the secret sauce that combines all the other factors of production into a product or service for the consumer market. An example of entrepreneurship is the evolution of the social media behemoth Meta (META), formerly Facebook. Kyiv obtained its drinking water from wells and from the Dnipro River (piped since 1872).

Improved capital equipment improves productivity, which in turn creates the production of more goods and raises the standard of living. In the late twentieth century, moreover, agreement about the definition of the term capital began to dissolve. Capital had traditionally been defined as the investments in equipment that businesses make with a view toward future increases in profits, but the term increasingly came to include the financial resources a business has at its disposal. Land is a passive factor whereas labour is an active factor of production. Actually, it is labour which in cooperation with land makes production possible. Land and labour are also known as primary factors of production as their supplies are determined more or less outside the economic system itself.

List of related links from Encyclopedia of Ukraine pointing to Kyiv entry:

These are the various factors by mean any resource is transformed into a more useful commodity or service. To make an origami, we need paper, money to buy it, and the most important technique of folding. Now that we know what the factors of production are let’s see how they function in our economy and what are the resulting rewards of each of the factors of production. Company X has been successfully able to start production after recruiting skilled workers to operate their machines and equipment, alongside operational management staff as well. The company is eager to grow its business and is working on developing strategies to increase revenue through innovative ideas.

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